Thursday, May 1, 2014

A Brief History of Food Guide Development

1916 First USDA Guide
“1916 - Food for Young Children” and “1917 - How to Select Foods” for adults was the first USDA guide for dietary recommendations.  Food recommended came in 5 groups :
·milk and meat ;
·cereals ;
·vegetables and fruit ;
·fats and fatty foods ; and
·sugars and sugary foods.

1943 Basic Seven
During the WW2, USDA introduced the “National Wartime Nutrition Guide” to help maintain nutritional standards under wartime food rationing.  The recommendation added serving sizes, but didn’t define a serving.  This guide offered 7 food groups :
·green and yellow vegetables ;
·oranges, tomatoes, grapefruit ;
·potatoes and other vegetables and fruits ;
·mil, and milk products ;
·meat, poultry, fish or eggs ;
·bread, flour and cereals ; and
·butter and fortified margarine.

1956 Basic Four
Basic Seven were cut down to basic four food groups, in “Essential of an Adequate Diet”.  Serving size recommendations were added.  The 4 food groups are :
·Milk ;
·Meat ;
·Fruits & vegetables ; and
·Grain products.

1972 Sweden’s Food Circle
Sweden’s National Board of Health & Welfare ( Socialstyrelsen ) introduced the idea of “basic foods” that were both cheap and nutritious, and “supplemental foods” that added nutrition missing from the basic foods. 

1974 The First Pyramid
Anna-Britt Agnsäter published her Food Pyramid in KF Provkök’s magazine Vi issue no. 36 7/9 1974.   The pyramid was divided into :
·basic food : milk, cheese, margarine, bread, cereals, and potatoes. 
·supplemental vegetables and fruits, and
·supplemental meat, fish and eggs. 

1979 Hassle-Free Guide
A new “Hassle-Free Guide to a Better Diet” were introduced with 5 food group :
·Milk ;
·Meat ;
·Fruits & vegetables ;
·Grain products ; and
·fat, sweets, and alcohol.
It highlighted the need to moderate the use of fat, sugars, and alcohol, and gave special attention to calories and dietary fiber.

1992 USDA Food Pyramid
The first USDA Food Pyramid recommended serving size for each food group.  However, the recommended serving sizes are confusing.  The food group includes :
·Bread, Cereal, Rice & Pasta Group
·Fruit Group
·Vegetable Group
·Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs & Nut Group
·Milk, Yogurt & Cheese Group
·Fat, Oils & Sweet

2005 MyPyramid
USDA update its food guide with MyPyramid in 2005, replaced the hierarchical levels of Food Pyramid with vertical wedges.  Stairs were added up the left side of the pyramid with an image of someone climbing them to represent exercise.  The food group were :
·Meat & Beans
An unmarked white tip represented discretionary calories for items such as candy, alcohol, or additional food from any other group.

2011 MyPlate
MyPyramid was replaced with MyPlate, consisting of a plate and a glass divided into 5 food group:
Recommendations were given in more comprehendible cups and ounces.