Friday, April 4, 2014

Prenatal Nutrition - Vitamins

Vitamin A
Vitamin A is a group of fat-soluble unsaturated organic compounds, includes retinoids ( retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, retinyl esters ), carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, γ-carotene, δ-carotene, ε-carotene, ζ-carotnee ) and xanthophylls ( astaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, fucoxanthin, lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin )
functions : regulate gene expression, cellular proliferation and differentiation, growth and development, vision and immunity.
deficiency :
1. maternal decrease immunity, anaemia, xerophthalmia
Toxicity :  birth defects, hypervitominosis A     
Daily requirement :  770µg  (prenatal), 1300 µg (lactation), 700 µg (normal)
Source: fruits, leafy vegetables, dairy products, seaweed, poultry
Superfood : cod liver oil, sweet potato, liver, spinach, carrot

Folate (B9)
IUPAC name : (2S)-2-[(4-{[(2-amino-4-hydroxypteridin-6-yl) methyl] amino} phenyl) formamido] pentanedioic acid
Other names : vitamin B9, vitamin M, vitamin Bc
Absorbable form : L-5-Methyl Tetrahydrofolate (L-5-MTHF)
Functions : cell division and growth
Deficiency :
1. congenital malformations - neural tube defects, heart defects, cleft lips, limb defects, urinary tract anomalies, etc
2. preterm delivery
3. infant low birth weight
4. fetal growth retardation
5. increased homocysteine level in blood, which lead to spontaneous abortion, placental abruption, preeclampsia
Daily requirement : 600 µg (prenatal), 500µg (lactation), 400µg (normal)
Source: leafy vegetables, fruits, nuts, beans, peas, dairy products, poultry, meat , eggs, seafood, grains, etc.
Superfood : broccoli, spinach, asparagus, Brussels sprouts, liver, yeast
Avoid : Folic Acid, pteroyl-L-glutamic acid (PGA), pteroyl-L-glutamate

Vitamin C
IUPAC name : 2-Oxo-L-threo-hexono-1,4-lactone-2,3-enediol
Other names : L-ascorbic acid
functions : tissue repair, would healing, bone growth, healthy skin, body immunity.
deficiency :
1. impaired fetal brain development
Daily requirement :  85mg (prenatal), 120mg (lactation), 75mg (normal)
Source: citrus fruits, leafy vegetables
Superfood : papaya, bell peppers, guava, oranges, kiwi, broccoli

Vitamin D
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids, including D3 ( cholecalciferol ) and D2 ( ergocalciferol ).
functions : regulates the amount of calcium, phosphate, iron, magnesium, zinc in the body
deficiency :
1. gestational diabetes
2. pre-eclampsia
3. infant low birth weight
4. rickets in infant
Daily requirement :  15µg (prenatal), 15µg (lactation), 15µg (normal)
Source: oily fish, eggs, meat, sunlight
Superfood : salmon, cod liver oil


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