Thursday, May 26, 2011

Glossary of Cooking Techniques

Dry – Conduction
· Dry Roasting = heating of dry foodstuff ( eg coffee beans ) without the use of oil or water, occasionally stir to ensure even heating
· Hot Salt Frying = cooking of dry foodstuff ( in India / China ) by burying them in heated salt, occasionally turned with a spatula
· Hot Sand Frying 沙炒 = cooking of dry foodstuff ( chestnuts, peanuts ) ( in India / China ) by burying them in heated sand, occasionally turned with a spatula
· Searing = cooking surface of the food at high temperature to allow caramelization, prior to further cooking

Dry – Convection
· Baking 焗烤 / 烘焙 / 烘烤= prolonged cooking of food by dry heating by convection, primarily for preparation of bread, cakes, pastries, pies, tarts, quiches, cookies, crackers
· Roasting ( modern ) = cooking via dry heat of whole piece foodstuff ( meat )
· Smoking = is the process of flavoring, cooking or preserving food ( meat, fish ) by exposing it to the smoke from burning plant materials ( oak wood )

Dry – Radiation
· Gridironing = is grilling meat, fish, vegetables over a metal grate, or hinged between two grids
· Grilling ( Charbroiling ) = is cooking of food via direct heat from above or below
· Broiling = is grilling of food with heat source from above ( Canada, USA )
· Roasting ( traditional ) = cooking using dry heat of open flame, over etc
· Rotisserie = a style of roasting where meat is skewered on a spit, vertical or horizontal over fire, continuously rotated
· Toasting = is browning of bread via exposing to radiant heat

Wet – High Heat
· Blanching = is cooking of vegetable in boiling water, and then place into iced water to halt the cooking process
· Boiling = cooking of food in boiling liquid
· Decoction = cooking of food in boiling liquid to prepare a stock
· Parboiling = is partial boiling of food to remove poisonous or foul-tasting substances

Wet – Low Heat
· Coddling = heat of food in water below boiling point
· Creaming (baking) = blending sugar and butter, beaten until it becomes light and fluffy
· Creaming (cooking) = simmering or poaching food in milk or cream
· Infusion = preparing beverage with adding boiling water over food ( herbs, tea, coffee ), and allow to steep for a time
· Poaching =  gentle simmering of food ( egg, poultry, fish, fruit ) in liquid other than oil ( milk, stock, wine )
· Simmering = cooking of food in hot liquids kept at or just below the boiling point of water
· Steeping = saturation in a liquid solvent to extract a soluble ingredient ( tea )
· Stewing 燉煮 = combination of solid foods ingredients ( carrots, potatoes, beans, pepers, tomatoes, meat ) cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy

Wet – Indirect Heat
· Bain-marie ( Water Bath / Double Boiling ) = heating of foodstuff in an inner container, immersed halfway inside an outer container containing water
· Double Steaming = ( Chinese ) steaming of delicate food ( bird nest, shark fins, Chinese medicine ) in a ceramic container, and the ceramic container is steamed for several hours
· Sous-vide = a method of cooking food sealed in airtight plastic bags in water bath for a long time ( up to 72 hours ), at a temperature lower than normally used for cooking ( 60 °C ) 
· Steaming = cooking using steam

Fat-based – High Heat
· Blackening = a cooking technique commonly used ( Cajun ) in the preparation of fish.  Food is dipped in melted butter, then dredge in a mixture of herbs, then cooked in an extremely hot cast iron skillet
· Browning = is the process of partially cooking meat to help remove excessive fat and to give the meat a brown colour and flavour through browning reaction, on a skillet or frying pan
· Deep Frying = food cooked by submerged in hot oil
· Pan Frying = food cooked using minimal oil, flipping is needed to cook both sides
· Stir Frying = a Chinese stir fry technique with a round-button cast iron wok, the food is stir fried on high heat for flavour and then steamed to ensure that it is fully cooked.
· Stir Frying = a Chinese stir fry technique with heated wok, the food is tossed continuously until cooked.
· Sautéing = foods are cooked over high heat on a shallow pan.

Fat-based – Low Heat
· Caramelizing = browning of sugar
· Gentle Frying = low temperature frying in oil for fragile foods
· Sweating = gentle heating of coarsely cut vegetable is little oil, with frequent stirring and turning to allow evaporation

· Barbecuing / BBQ 燒烤 = cooking marinated meat over the heat of fire
· Braising = food is seared first, then liquid is added, and cooked under low simmer
· Griddling = food cooked without oil on heated plate of metal or brick slab, eg. Pancakes, crepes, unleavened breads


Post a Comment